Chi tiết bài viết

Briefing on Solid Treatment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solids Process

Overview

 

1

 
1

 

CWRP Process Schematic

 

Liquid Treatment Process


Effluent Junction

Chamber

 

 

 

Fine Screens


 

Primary Sedimentation tanks


 

Bioreactor tanks


Secondary

Sedimentation tanks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DTSS Tunnel


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pumping

Station


Thickening

Centrifuge


Digester


 

 

 

Gas storage tank


 

 

 

 

 

Sludge

Dryer


 

 

 

 

Storage

Silo

 

 

 

Dewatering

Centrifuge

 

 

 

 

 

Solids Treatment Process

 

 

2

 
2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solids Treatment Building

 

3

 
3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solids Building

(Main Solids Treatment Facilities)

 

Dried Sludge

Tanks

Dewatering

Centrifuges

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sludge Drying

 
System

 

 

 

Thickening

Centrifuges                                                                                    Dewatered

Sludge Tanks

 

 

 

Sludge Tanks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 
4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anaerobic

Digesters

 

5

 
5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

–  in the absence of oxygen.

Acetogenesis:

–  fermentation products → cetate, H2,and

 

 

 

 

 

Anaerobic Digestion Process

•     Hydrolysis :

–  Complex organic matter → simple soluble organic molecules,

–   By water

•    Fermentation or Acidogenesis:

–  chemical decomposition of carbohydrates,

–  by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or molds

 
CO2

–  by acetogenic bacteria.

•    Methanogenesis:

–  acetate and H2 /CO→ CH4

–  by methanogenic bacteria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 
6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anaerotic Digesters at CWRP

 
Constructed by SembCorp Engineers and Constructors

 

5 digesters, each with a capacity of 16,800 m3

 

Digester operational data

HRT

:

21 days

VMR

:

40-50%

Gas Yield:          0.77 m3/kg VM destroyed

 

Digester mixing by sludge pumping

 

 

7

 
7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

`

 

 

 

View of cone shaped bottom of digester

 
Cone Shape Digester  in CWRP

 

Semi Egg Shape

 

Lower  construction fee

 

 

8

 
8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS

 

 

03 NOV 02

 

9

 
9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS

 

04 Dec 02

 

10

 
10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS

 

26 Mar 03

 

11

 
11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS

 

 

03 May 03

 

12

 
12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS

 

 

03 June 03

 

13

 
13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS

 

 

04 Aug 03

 

14

 
14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aerial View of Digesters

 

03 Sep 08

 

15

 
15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Centrifuges

 

16

 
16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DECANTING & CENTRIFUGING – Process Basics

 

 

 

 

•   Separation of solid or liquid particles of different densities by rapidly rotating the material

 

 

•   Example of centrifuging: Spin-drying of washing machine

 

 

 

•   Centrifuging is used to achieve good separation of two mutually insoluble liquids

 
•   Intermediate chemicals in pharmaceutical and dyestuff

production are often filtered by centrifuging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17

 
17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DECANTING & CENTRIFUGING – Process Basics

Solids transport in decanter centrifuges

 

 

 

From Sediment basin to the decanter centrifuge

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sediment basin filled with product

 
Sedimentation by gravity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

 
Decanting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DECANTING & CENTRIFUGING – Process Basics

 

 

 

 

 

 

Speration by gravity

 
Speration by

centrifugal force

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19

 
19

 

 

 

 

DECANTING & CENTRIFUGING – Process Basics

Solids transport in decanter centrifuges

 

 

 

 

Hydraulic retention time be varied by adjusting pond depth

 

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DECANTING & CENTRIFUGING – Process Basics - Solids transport by scroll

 

21

 
21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thickening Centrifuge

 

 

 

Thickening

Centrifuges

@1ST  storey

 
Supplier                                           Westfalia Separator, Germany

Total Nos                                            20units (18 duty, 2 standby) Current utilization rate                                                   6 out of 20

Capacity                                                           204.3 m3/hr

 

Sludge feed conc                                                        0.5-0.8% Min output sludge conc                                                6%

Min Recovery                                                                  95%

Max dry polymer dosage                                      5.6kg/ ton of dry sludge

 

22

 
Max speed                                 2150rmp (optimal speed 1200-1500rpm) Dia. of bowl                                                           1050mm

22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dewatering Centrifuges

 

 

Dewatering

Centrifuges

@6th storey

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplier                                          Westfalia Separator, Germany

 
Total Nos                                            10units (6 duty, 4 standby)

Currentutilization rate                                                  2 out of 10

Capacity                                                            140 m3/hr

 

Sludge feed conc                                                                                                    3-4 % Min dewatered sludge solid content                                                                                                                                            25% Min recovery                                                                                                                                                                                    95%

Max dry polymer dosage                                    12.5 kg/ ton of dry sludge

 

Max speed                                                           1850rmp

 

Dia. of bowl                                                          1050mm

 

 

23

 
23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sludge Drying

 
System

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

 
24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sludge Drying Systems at CWRP

 

25

 
25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sludge Drying Systems at CWRP

 
•    Supplied by Andritz

 

•    5 drying system trains -using Direct Convective Drum Drying

System

 

•    Exhaust from Rotary drum to be treated by RTO before emission.

 

•    Max 3 in operation (Ph 1: 800,000 CMD),

(spare capacity to handle up to 1,200,000 CMD)

 

 

26

 
26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sludge Drying Systems at CWRP

 

 

 

••   UUssee BBiioo--ggaass aass ffuueell

EEnneerrggyy rreeccoovveerryy rraattee:: 22..44kkwwhh//mm33 bbiioo--ggaass

 

••   CCaappaacciittyy ooff eeaacchh ddrryyeerr::   9900..77 ttoonnnneess ddrryy ssoolliidd ppeerr ddaayy ooff

ddeewwaatteerreedd sslluuddggee..

 

••   DDrryy pprroodduucctt::        ggrraannuullaattee ooff 11 -- 44 mmmm ppaarrttiiccllee ssiizzee

9922%% –– 9966%% ddrryynneessss

 
•   Disposal Method   future  : Incineration

 

 

 

 

•   Overall:                 75% (3/4) reduction in weight

67% (2/3) reduction in volume

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27

 
27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fuel

 

 

 

 

Air


 

 

 

 

 

Sludge drying process flow schematic

 

 

Dewatered Sludge

G2,G3

25-28% DS                                                            water                                    Air to RTO

for emission

control

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moisture Evaporation rate: 11,210 kg/h

 
Thermal energy input:

3,600 kJ per kg water evaporated


50oC

 

 

 

 

Cooling Water plus condensate

 

 

 

 

Dry product

92 -96% DS

 

28

 
28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sludge drying process flow schematic

 

 

Dewatered Sludge

G2,G3

25-28% DS                                                            water                                    Air to RTO

for emission

control

 

 

 

Return (inert) air                                                                hot water +

O2<8%                                                                                      water

vapour >

Recycled material                                                                   11,210 kg/h

 
 

60 – 65 %DS                       95oC


50oC

 

 

 

 

 

Fuel

 

 

 

 

Air


 

 

 

 

 

FURNACE

 

480oC


 

 

 

 

 

DRYER DRUM


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35oC


Cooling Water

plus condensate

 

 

 

Dry product

92 -96% DS

 

29

 
29

 

 

 

Sludge drying process flow schematic

 

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

be dried

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The drying system used in the Changi water reclamation plant is a

direct convective drum drying system

 

 

Direct               the source of heat is in contact with the material to be dried

(no heat exchangers).

 

 

Convective         the material to be dried is in contact with a gaseous fluid that is hot and dry.

 

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